Emerging Infectious Diseases

Emerging infectious diseases are those whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threaten to increase in the near future. These diseases, which respect no national boundaries, can challenge efforts to protect workers as prevention and control recommendations may not be immediately available. The occupational safety and health community can prepare for these unpredictable disease outbreaks and prevent disease transmission with these resources for protecting workers, particularly healthcare workers, nurses, doctors, and first responders.

https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/emerginfectdiseases/default.html

 

Thyroid Disease in Women

Your thyroid produces thyroid hormone, which controls many activities in your body, including how fast you burn calories and how fast your heart beats. Diseases of the thyroid cause it to make either too much or too little of the hormone. Depending on how much or how little hormone your thyroid makes, you may often feel restless or tired, or you may lose or gain weight. Women are more likely than men to have thyroid diseases, especially right after pregnancy and after menopause.

 

https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/thyroid-disease

What is the difference between CML (chronic myelogenous leukemia) become AML (acute myelogenous leukemia) and CMMoL (chronic myelomonocytic leukemia)?

 

The three diseases you mention are 3 distinct entities.

CML or chronic myelogenous leukemia is a disease in which patients have too many mature white blood cells. It is considered a myeloproliferative disorder-a condition in which the bone marrow makes too many cells. This disease is diagnosed by the presence of either the Philadelphia Chromosome or the gene made by the Philadelphia chromosome, called bcr-abl. New treatments, which target this abnormal gene, have been developed. It is considered in the list of possible diagnoses, this chromosome is looked for so that appropriate therapy is not missed.

AML or acute myelogenous leukemia is a disease in which patients have too many immature white blood cells in their bone marrow that are not capable of maturing properly. These immature cells act very rapidly and can cause life-threatening problems if the disease is not treated promptly.

CMMoL or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disorder of the bone marrow where the bone marrow is making too many white blood cells called monocytes. The bone marrow appears myeloproliferative but the cells that it makes are not normal mature cells and do not function properly. This disorder is called a myelodysplatic disorder (funny looking bone marrow). Its progression and outcome is variable and can be predicted to some degree by the blood counts and bone marrow findings.

 

https://www.oncolink.org/frequently-asked-questions/cancers/leukemia/general-concerns/what-is-the-difference-between-cml-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia-become-aml-acute-myelogenous-leukemia-and-cmmol-chronic-myelomonocytic-leukemia

 

Scientists reveal how immune system tags Toxoplasma capsule

 

By

Scientists at the Francis Crick Institute have discovered how the host immune system deals with the prolific Toxoplasma parasite as it attempts to camouflage itself by hiding inside a capsule called a vacuole in human cells.

 

For the first time, they’ve revealed how a protein called ubiquitin tags the vacuole hiding Toxoplasma. The cell’s acidification system then destroys it.

Eva Frickel, the research group leader at the Crick who led the work, explains: “The parasite Toxoplasma gondii resides inside a vacuole in the cells of the organism it infects. The vacuole provides a safe haven for the parasite where it can multiply and cause damage to the host. Until now, it was unclear what defence mechanisms human cells deploy to the vacuole to clear and eliminate Toxoplasma. We have found that a human protein called ubiquitin tags the vacuole for destruction via the cell’s acidification system.”

Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite found almost everywhere. It is in soil and unwashed food, but its most important host is the cat. It causes an infection called toxoplasmosis that can cause miscarriage and is especially damaging to people who have a weakened immune system, others never know they’ve been infected.

The team used immunofluorescent microscopy to visualise each step in vacuole destruction. They learnt how a ubiquitin protein tags the vacuole and then attracts other proteins that stick on and allow it to join with an acidic compartment called the lysosome. This then destroys the vacuole and parasite.

“This work is the first demonstration of how ubiquitin tagging leads to vacuole-lysosome fusion in human cells infected with Toxoplasma,” Eva says. “Until now, it was thought the vacuoles were not susceptible. Mouse studies have shown a different route to fusion between the vacuole and lysosome. This raises questions for further studies on how vacuolar-lysosomal fusion in human cells happens and why the human cellular immune response is different from the mouse.”

Eva’s research team explores how react to Toxoplasma and what it is that makes it one of the most successful on the planet. There is no vaccine to protect against Toxoplasma infection or medicine that kills the parasite.

Eva talks about their work and shares images from the progress they are making in research in the Crick’s first public exhibition (above). How do we look? is a collection of scientific images that could be mistaken for works of art though each has been created by a scientist to solve a research problem.

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-scientists-reveal-immune-tags-toxoplasma.html#jCp

Immune disorders impact student lives

By Hannah Lathen

_______________________________

SE student Janna Gentry lives with a mother who has Crohn’s disease and lupus, causing her to have stomach ulcers and inflamed joints.

Online student Laken Reeder has Sjogren’s syndrome, causing extreme pain and difficulties with eating.

TCC students are fighting hidden and misunderstood battles with autoimmune diseases. Even though they affect 1 in 6 people, many do not understand what they are or that they exist.

An autoimmune disease occurs in the body when one’s immune system starts attacking healthy cells. Instead of protecting the body from foreign invaders, the system starts hurting organs.

autoimmune_sjogren's_plasma_research

10 Signs Your Thyroid Isn’t Working

The thyroid, a butterfly-shaped gland located at front of our neck below the Adam’s apple, is a small but very important gland that releases hormones that have a huge impact on metabolism, among other processes. According to the American Thyroid Association, about 20 million Americans suffer from some form of thyroid malfunction, yet 60 percent don’t realize that they even have a problem. This makes realizing that the thyroid is malfunctioning really important.

Bright Side brings to you 10 signs that indicate that your thyroid might be acting up and it’s time to pay the doctor a visit. Don’t miss our important bonus at the end.

 

Dry, scaly and thick skin

 

Hypothyroidism leads to the calcification of the skin, causing it to appear thick, very dry, and scaly in texture.

Hair loss/thinning hair

Hair growth depends on the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. Changes in the level of the hormone produced by the thyroid gland can lead to changes in hair growth. Excessive production of the hormone can cause the hair to become thin all over the scalp while underproduction of the hormone can lead to hair loss

 Unusual bowel activity

 

Thyroid hormones play a role in regulating the bowel movement. An underactive thyroid can cause constipation, while an overactive thyroid can result in frequent bowel movements.

Depression/sudden anxiety

If you have been feeling anxious or unsettled lately, there’s a chance that your thyroid gland has been acting up. Overproduction of thyroid hormones results in more brain stimulation causing patients to feel jittery or anxious. Underproduction of the hormone has the opposite effect, it makes the patient feel depressed and tired.

Feeling unusually cold/unusual sweating

 

The thyroid gland is like a thermostat for our body in the sense that it regulates body temperature. If the hormone production gets beefed up it unusually increases the body’s metabolism causing people to feel overly warm and sweaty. If there is a deficiency of the thyroid hormone in the body the patient might be prone to having low body temperatures and cold intolerance.

 

 

Thyroid hormones are responsible for regulating the body’s metabolism. Lower than normal production of the hormone can significantly decrease metabolism and calorie burning abilities of the body causing you to gain weight, while over secretion of it will make you lose weight abruptly.

Irregular periods

 

If you are experiencing period problems, improper thyroid functioning might be the culprit. A lack of enough hormones will make the periods heavier, longer, or cause them to occur closer together while an abundant production of the hormone might make your periods lighter or cause them to occur further apart.

Brain fogging/difficulty concentrating

If your thyroid isn’t working properly, neither is your brain. An underactive thyroid can cause subtle memory loss while an overactive thyroid can make it difficult to concentrate.

Neck discomfort or enlargement

 

Both overproduction and underproduction of the thyroid hormone can lead to the enlargement of the thyroid gland causing the neck to appear swollen.

Changes in heart rate

Under secretion of the thyroid hormone can cause the heart to beat slowly, whereas hyperthyroidism causes a fast heartbeat.

Bonus: Who is at a greater risk?

 

  • Women more than men
  • Women over 60 years of age
  • People with a family history of thyroid related problems

Neck check for thyroid disorder:

Tip your head back and swallow. Examine your neck around the Adam’s apple and the area above your collarbones. If you feel lumps or bulges, see a doctor.

 

Sources: https://brightside.me/inspiration-health/10-signs-your-thyroid-isnt-working-515510/

 

 

Plasma Med Research - Get Paid to Donate Plasma Clinical Studies

 

 

Common signs you might be suffering from a thyroid disorder

Article Source: https://www.metro.us/body-and-mind/health/thyroid-disorder-symptoms

 

January is National Thyroid Awareness Month. Here’s how to know if you have a thyroid problem and how to get treatment

 

Here’s how to know if something might be out of whack with your thyroid. Photo: ISTOCK

You’ve probably heard of the thyroid, but it’s less likely that you know what it is or how it actually functions in the body. The two-inch, butterfly-shaped gland, located in the neck just below the adam’s apple, secretes hormones that help regulate important systems in the body, including temperature, metabolism, heart rate, weight and menstruation.

When too much or too little of these hormones are produced, several bodily functions can get out of whack. For National Thyroid Awareness Month, we asked endocrinologist Dr. Byan McIver to talk us through common thyroid disorders and signs that you might be suffering from them.

Who is likely to develop a thyroid disorder? 

 According to the American Thyroid Association, 20 million Americans have thyroid disease, although women are five to eight times more likely to suffer from it than men. Typically, it affects women in their mid-thirties to mid-sixties who have a family history of thyroid problems — although the disorder isn’t strictly genetic. 

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid

McIver likens the thyroid to a “conductor” for the body’s symptoms.

“When there’s too much thyroid hormone, it’s like that conductor has gone a little crazy and gone too fast, and the whole music goes into dissonance,” he explains, describing the condition of hypothyroidism. This can cause rapid heartbeat, restlessness and anxiety, trouble sleeping, difficulty with memory and focus, hot flashes, an overactive bowel — symptoms akin to how you feel if you’ve had too much coffee, according to McIver. Over time, it can lead to hair loss, muscle weakness, shortness of breath and in severe cases, injuries to internal organs.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism, or underactive thyroid

The most common thyroid condition, hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid isn’t producing enough hormones. This can cause patients to feel tired and low energy or depressed, have a slower heart rate, be more susceptible to the cold, experience constipation and rapid weight gain. It can also interfere with the menstrual cycle, which can lead to issues with infertility. If you’re having trouble getting pregnant, you might consider getting your thyroid tested to see if that’s the culprit, says McIver.

Nodular thyroid disease 

Talk about a lump in your throat. Nodules are a swelling on or inside the thyroid, and they’re actually very common — you’ll find them in half of women over the age of 50, McIver explains. Depending on the size of the nodule, you can feel it or even see it protruding from your neck. As it grows, it can lead you to develop a raspy voice or have difficulty swallowing. Luckily, the majority are benign, but on occasion they are cancerous.

How do you diagnose and treat thyroid conditions? 

If you’re experiencing any of the aforementioned symptoms of overactive or underactive thyroid, or if you suspect you might have a nodule, let your doctor know, McIver recommends. They can refer you to an endocrinologist who can diagnose the condition by testing the levels of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) through a simple blood test.

In the case of hypothyroidism, the endocrinologist can treat it with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. If it’s hyperthyroidism, there are medications to help slow down the thyroid, or removal of the thyroid through radioactive iodine or surgery.

In the case of a potential nodule, a doctor can confirm it with an ultrasound and then biopsy it, or use genetic testing to determine the cancer. Thyroid cancer has a good prognosis, McIver explains.

 

Find out how you can help medical research and contribute to finding cures by contacting PlasmaMed through our website: www.plasmamedpatients.com/contact