Emerging Infectious Diseases

Emerging infectious diseases are those whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threaten to increase in the near future. These diseases, which respect no national boundaries, can challenge efforts to protect workers as prevention and control recommendations may not be immediately available. The occupational safety and health community can prepare for these unpredictable disease outbreaks and prevent disease transmission with these resources for protecting workers, particularly healthcare workers, nurses, doctors, and first responders.

https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/emerginfectdiseases/default.html

 

Thyroid Disease in Women

Your thyroid produces thyroid hormone, which controls many activities in your body, including how fast you burn calories and how fast your heart beats. Diseases of the thyroid cause it to make either too much or too little of the hormone. Depending on how much or how little hormone your thyroid makes, you may often feel restless or tired, or you may lose or gain weight. Women are more likely than men to have thyroid diseases, especially right after pregnancy and after menopause.

 

https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/thyroid-disease

What is the difference between CML (chronic myelogenous leukemia) become AML (acute myelogenous leukemia) and CMMoL (chronic myelomonocytic leukemia)?

 

The three diseases you mention are 3 distinct entities.

CML or chronic myelogenous leukemia is a disease in which patients have too many mature white blood cells. It is considered a myeloproliferative disorder-a condition in which the bone marrow makes too many cells. This disease is diagnosed by the presence of either the Philadelphia Chromosome or the gene made by the Philadelphia chromosome, called bcr-abl. New treatments, which target this abnormal gene, have been developed. It is considered in the list of possible diagnoses, this chromosome is looked for so that appropriate therapy is not missed.

AML or acute myelogenous leukemia is a disease in which patients have too many immature white blood cells in their bone marrow that are not capable of maturing properly. These immature cells act very rapidly and can cause life-threatening problems if the disease is not treated promptly.

CMMoL or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disorder of the bone marrow where the bone marrow is making too many white blood cells called monocytes. The bone marrow appears myeloproliferative but the cells that it makes are not normal mature cells and do not function properly. This disorder is called a myelodysplatic disorder (funny looking bone marrow). Its progression and outcome is variable and can be predicted to some degree by the blood counts and bone marrow findings.

 

https://www.oncolink.org/frequently-asked-questions/cancers/leukemia/general-concerns/what-is-the-difference-between-cml-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia-become-aml-acute-myelogenous-leukemia-and-cmmol-chronic-myelomonocytic-leukemia

 

Scientists reveal how immune system tags Toxoplasma capsule

 

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Scientists at the Francis Crick Institute have discovered how the host immune system deals with the prolific Toxoplasma parasite as it attempts to camouflage itself by hiding inside a capsule called a vacuole in human cells.

 

For the first time, they’ve revealed how a protein called ubiquitin tags the vacuole hiding Toxoplasma. The cell’s acidification system then destroys it.

Eva Frickel, the research group leader at the Crick who led the work, explains: “The parasite Toxoplasma gondii resides inside a vacuole in the cells of the organism it infects. The vacuole provides a safe haven for the parasite where it can multiply and cause damage to the host. Until now, it was unclear what defence mechanisms human cells deploy to the vacuole to clear and eliminate Toxoplasma. We have found that a human protein called ubiquitin tags the vacuole for destruction via the cell’s acidification system.”

Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite found almost everywhere. It is in soil and unwashed food, but its most important host is the cat. It causes an infection called toxoplasmosis that can cause miscarriage and is especially damaging to people who have a weakened immune system, others never know they’ve been infected.

The team used immunofluorescent microscopy to visualise each step in vacuole destruction. They learnt how a ubiquitin protein tags the vacuole and then attracts other proteins that stick on and allow it to join with an acidic compartment called the lysosome. This then destroys the vacuole and parasite.

“This work is the first demonstration of how ubiquitin tagging leads to vacuole-lysosome fusion in human cells infected with Toxoplasma,” Eva says. “Until now, it was thought the vacuoles were not susceptible. Mouse studies have shown a different route to fusion between the vacuole and lysosome. This raises questions for further studies on how vacuolar-lysosomal fusion in human cells happens and why the human cellular immune response is different from the mouse.”

Eva’s research team explores how react to Toxoplasma and what it is that makes it one of the most successful on the planet. There is no vaccine to protect against Toxoplasma infection or medicine that kills the parasite.

Eva talks about their work and shares images from the progress they are making in research in the Crick’s first public exhibition (above). How do we look? is a collection of scientific images that could be mistaken for works of art though each has been created by a scientist to solve a research problem.

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-scientists-reveal-immune-tags-toxoplasma.html#jCp

Immune disorders impact student lives

By Hannah Lathen

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SE student Janna Gentry lives with a mother who has Crohn’s disease and lupus, causing her to have stomach ulcers and inflamed joints.

Online student Laken Reeder has Sjogren’s syndrome, causing extreme pain and difficulties with eating.

TCC students are fighting hidden and misunderstood battles with autoimmune diseases. Even though they affect 1 in 6 people, many do not understand what they are or that they exist.

An autoimmune disease occurs in the body when one’s immune system starts attacking healthy cells. Instead of protecting the body from foreign invaders, the system starts hurting organs.

autoimmune_sjogren's_plasma_research

What are the Differences between Crohn’s Disease, Ulcerative Colitis and IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease)

Article Source: http://managedigestion.com/what-are-the-differences-between-crohns-disease-uc-and-ibd/

 

Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease

Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s disease are both Inflammatory Bowel Diseases affecting the bowel and colon. The common symptoms of these diseases are weight loss, severe abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and fatigue.

Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis are found among many Americans. Symptoms of these conditions are abdominal pain, exhaustion, weight loss, and bloody diarrhea which can result in anemia. This has severe effects on the colon and bowel and can result in irritable bowel syndrome.

Ulcerative Colitis (UC) mostly attacks the mucosa and submucosa in the large intestine. It occurs normally in young adults starting from the age of 10 to 19 or 20 years old, irrespective of sex. Although the exact cause of this disease is not known, it is mostly attributed to infectious, immunological issues, nutritional and psychogenic related conditions, and both physical and emotional factors. Stress can be a major factor in the worsening of the illness. The presence of this disease may also be influenced by genes and environmental elements.

Ulcerative Colitis is usually indicated by frequent diarrhea. In acute cases, bloody diarrhea and severe pain and cramps in the abdominal region are major symptoms. This can also result in swelling of the abdomen. These conditions may result in anemia. The reduced intake of food and irritable bowel syndrome may bring down the water level and electrolytes in the body. Fever, weight loss, anorexia, and vomiting are the other features of this bowel disease.

Crohn’s Disease is more or less similar to UC. In fact, there are so many similarities between the two that sometimes it becomes difficult to differentiate between the two diseases. The main difference, however, is that Crohn’s does not attack the rectum, whereas Ulcerative Colitis does. Another major difference is that while UC affects only the mucosa and submucosa of the intestinal region, Crohn’s affects the muscularis propria in addition to the other two. Crohn’s Disease typically causes fistulas and strictures while UC results in deadly megacolon and if left untreated can even lead to colonic carcinoma. Due to constant inflammation and regeneration of the colonic wall, there appears a thickening of the bowel wall in Crohn’s Disease. In the case of UC however, the ulcerations made by the intestinal tract cause deep recesses or notches creating the appearance of pseudopolyps.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

However, an X-Ray can help differentiate between the two inflammatory bowel diseases. Although both classified as irritable bowel syndrome, the manner of treating ulcerative colitis is different from that of treating Crohn’s Disease even if some medications may be used for both. While diet plays a major role in Crohn’s, UC doesn’t seem to be affected much by diet.

 

Find out how you can help medical research and contribute to finding cures by contacting PlasmaMed through our website: www.plasmamedpatients.com/contact 

What is Multiple Myeloma?

From Janssen EMEA

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See link here.