What are the Differences between Crohn’s Disease, Ulcerative Colitis and IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease)

Article Source: http://managedigestion.com/what-are-the-differences-between-crohns-disease-uc-and-ibd/

 

Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease

Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s disease are both Inflammatory Bowel Diseases affecting the bowel and colon. The common symptoms of these diseases are weight loss, severe abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and fatigue.

Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis are found among many Americans. Symptoms of these conditions are abdominal pain, exhaustion, weight loss, and bloody diarrhea which can result in anemia. This has severe effects on the colon and bowel and can result in irritable bowel syndrome.

Ulcerative Colitis (UC) mostly attacks the mucosa and submucosa in the large intestine. It occurs normally in young adults starting from the age of 10 to 19 or 20 years old, irrespective of sex. Although the exact cause of this disease is not known, it is mostly attributed to infectious, immunological issues, nutritional and psychogenic related conditions, and both physical and emotional factors. Stress can be a major factor in the worsening of the illness. The presence of this disease may also be influenced by genes and environmental elements.

Ulcerative Colitis is usually indicated by frequent diarrhea. In acute cases, bloody diarrhea and severe pain and cramps in the abdominal region are major symptoms. This can also result in swelling of the abdomen. These conditions may result in anemia. The reduced intake of food and irritable bowel syndrome may bring down the water level and electrolytes in the body. Fever, weight loss, anorexia, and vomiting are the other features of this bowel disease.

Crohn’s Disease is more or less similar to UC. In fact, there are so many similarities between the two that sometimes it becomes difficult to differentiate between the two diseases. The main difference, however, is that Crohn’s does not attack the rectum, whereas Ulcerative Colitis does. Another major difference is that while UC affects only the mucosa and submucosa of the intestinal region, Crohn’s affects the muscularis propria in addition to the other two. Crohn’s Disease typically causes fistulas and strictures while UC results in deadly megacolon and if left untreated can even lead to colonic carcinoma. Due to constant inflammation and regeneration of the colonic wall, there appears a thickening of the bowel wall in Crohn’s Disease. In the case of UC however, the ulcerations made by the intestinal tract cause deep recesses or notches creating the appearance of pseudopolyps.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

However, an X-Ray can help differentiate between the two inflammatory bowel diseases. Although both classified as irritable bowel syndrome, the manner of treating ulcerative colitis is different from that of treating Crohn’s Disease even if some medications may be used for both. While diet plays a major role in Crohn’s, UC doesn’t seem to be affected much by diet.

 

Find out how you can help medical research and contribute to finding cures by contacting PlasmaMed through our website: www.plasmamedpatients.com/contact 

What is Multiple Myeloma?

From Janssen EMEA

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See link here.

Quest for new antibiotics gets first major funding from global partnership

A major global partnership aimed at fighting superbugs announced Thursday that it is investing up to $48 million in research projects, including potentially the first new classes of antibiotics in decades, to target the deadliest drug-resistant bacteria.

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The investments announced by CARB-X include $24 million in immediate funding for 11 companies. The firms can receive up to $24 million in additional payments over three years if they meet specific milestones.

The projects represent a broad range of approaches. Three companies are working on new classes of antibiotics, a significant development because the last class that made it to market was in 1984. Four companies are developing nontraditional therapeutics to boost the human immune response and disable pathogens’ ability to grow. Yet another company is pursuing a diagnostic imaging tool to identify the type of bacteria causing a lung infection within 60 seconds.

All the projects are in early stages of research, when risk of failure is high, officials said. CARB-X, which stands for Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Biopharmaceutical Accelerator, was launched in July to stimulate such critical early-stage work. Its goal is to jump-start drug development with money and access to expertise, supporting companies with promising antibiotic candidates so they can attract enough private or public investment to advance development and eventually win regulatory approval.

 

Funding comes from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, or BARDA, part of the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Wellcome Trust, a London-based global biomedical research charity. CARB-X aims to invest $450 million over five years with the goal of speeding up preclinical discovery and development of at least 20 antibacterial products and moving at least two of them into human trials. The partnership, which also includes academic, industry and other nongovernmental organizations, was created as part of the U.S. and British governments’ calls for global efforts to tackle antibiotic resistance.

The projects announced Thursday were selected out of 168 applications that flooded in within the first four days that proposals were accepted.  “These projects hold exciting potential in the fight against the deadliest antibiotic-resistant bacteria,” said Kevin Outterson, executive director of CARB-X and a law professor at Boston University, where the partnership is headquartered.

Everything about developing new antibiotics is difficult, he said. On the science side, that means finding a drug that only kills the bad bacteria, leaving good bacteria and the rest of human cells untouched. The economics for antibiotics also turn market incentives “upside down” because, unlike most new products that companies rush to sell, the best antibiotics need to kept on the shelf — to be used for  “last-ditch cases,” he said.

And because resistance will always develop, antibiotics are “the only drug class where we have to start all over every time we succeed,” Outterson said.

But interest has been strong. Additional funds are likely to be awarded later this year, and another 200 applications have already been received for the next cycle.

All the potential medicines under development in this first phase target Gram-negative bacteria, among the most dangerous types of superbugs because they are increasingly resistant to most available antibiotics. They include CRE, or carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, which U.S. health officials have dubbed “nightmare bacteria.”

These pathogens, which cause pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and wound or surgical site infections, have been identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization as the greatest threat to human health. They have built-in defenses that include a double membrane barrier and a mechanism that expels drugs, such as antibiotics, from the cell.

 

Drug-resistant infections kill an estimated 700,000 people a year globally. The more antibiotics are used, the less effective they become as bacteria develop resistance to them. Scientists, doctors and other public health officials have increasingly warned that if antibiotic resistance continued at its current rate, routine infections eventually would be life-threatening ones. Common modern surgeries, such as knee replacements, could again become precarious.

Last month, the World Health Organization announced its first list of drug-resistant “priority pathogens” to guide and promote research and development of new drugs. Of the 40 antibiotics in clinical development in the United States, fewer than half have the potential to treat the pathogens identified by the WHO, said Allan Coukell, senior director of health programs at the Pew Charitable Trust’s antibiotic-resistance project.

Experts said they are excited by the research CARB-X is funding.

“It’s hitting the right targets for potential drug development,” said Kathy Talkington, director of Pew’s antibiotic-resistance project. “It’s covering a diverse portfolio of products. It addresses the need for novelty.”

Eight companies are based in the United States and three in the United Kingdom. The projects also will receive business and drug development support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, and other partners.

Companies that are developing potentially new classes of antibiotics include San Diego-based Forge Therapeutics, which was awarded $4 million over 15 months to spur development of a small molecule product to target an enzyme found only in Gram-negative bacteria and essential for its growth.

Visterra Inc. of Cambridge, Mass., was awarded $3 million over 12 months to develop an antibody with a potent antimicrobial compound engineered to kill all strains of the deadly Pseudomonas bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains, the company said.

And Proteus IRC, based in Edinburgh, Scotland, is receiving $640,000 over 21 months to develop its technology to rapidly visualize bacteria in the deepest part of the human lungs.

Read article here.

Fresh optimism has been injected in HIV/AIDS research

Kudos to Gilead Sciences, Inc.!!

A Durban based scientist has been awarded over two and a half million dollars to fund HIV/AIDS research.

Toxoplasmosis: Truth, Fiction, and Crazy Cat Ladies?

Perhaps a bit lengthy, but a great overview of toxoplasmosis and its misconceptions by Dr. Janet L. Swanson, Director of Shelter Medicine, Maddie’s Shelter Medicine Program, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine reviews. Well worth the time.

Zika: The Untold Story

Every pathogen has a history. Here is an excellent piece from NOVA on Zika’s origin and evolution.

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Timothy Grass Allergy

Timothy grass (Phleum pretense) is a forage and hay crop native to Europe and Asia. It has also been adapted for use in North America. It’s one of the many grasses that produce grass pollen, a very common allergen.

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From allergysymptomsx.com

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Basic Information About Timothy Grass Allergy

  • Grass description: grass has flat leaves and grows two to four feet tall
  • Allergy type: Non-food allergy, grass pollen allergy
  • Habitat: Timothy grass is normally grown in Europe and Asia. It has also adapted to cool parts of Northern America. Despite its origins, it’s now widely available in the US. It’s commonly used as feeds for horses and grass for lawns.
  • Allergy season: June to July or early summer to fall
  • Allergic reactions: mild to severe, depending on the pollen count and the body’s sensitivity

Timothy Grass Allergy Causes

The main source of Timothy grass allergy is the pollen it gives off. These pollen are airborne and are so small, they could be inhaled without the person realizing it. Although the allergy is usually rampant during summer, there’s also a small chance of getting the allergy during other seasons.

Grass pollen is regional and seasonal, according to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Grass pollen count is affected by several factors such as time of the day, weather and season.

Timothy Grass Allergy Symptoms

As with other allergies, an individual’s reaction depends on how his immune system will react. Below is the list of common symptoms:

  • Cough
  • Runny nose
  • Asthma
  • Fever
  • Sneezing
  • Itchy nose
  • Sore throat
  • Watery eyes
  • Puffed eyes
  • Itchy eyes
  • Difficulty in breathing

The flower of Timothy grass starts to grow in the early summer, while the flower pollinates towards the end of summer or fall. The wind carries the pollens away from the flowers and it continues to linger on the environment until fall. This is when the most allergies are triggered. More pollen is carried into the air during hot and windy days, which is why most allergic reactions occur during summer and fall.

Tips For Preventing Timothy Grass Allergy

  • Stay indoors when the pollen count is high. You can get a pollen count report from weather reports and websites.
  • Wear a mask when mowing the lawn. If you could afford it, hire someone else to do the mowing.
  • If you could, choose a grass that doesn’t contain much pollen. Irish moss and dichondra could be good alternatives
  • Keep the grass short by mowing it frequently. Some grasses will eventually adapt to this, so you need to trim it regularly.
  • Stay indoors from 5:00 AM to 10:00 AM, as this is when the pollen count is highest. Leave outdoor activities until 5:00 PM, or after a heavy rain.
  • Always keep your home and car windows closed. This lessens their exposure to pollen. Avoid window and attic fans as they will draw air from outside of your house, which may be contaminated with pollen.
  • Regularly bathe your pets. Pollen could also be attached to them.
  • Use a dryer for your clothes. If you hang them outside, pollen can attach on your clothes. This will expose you and your house to the allergens.
  • Minimize your alcohol intake. A study from the National Institute of Public Health in Denmark last 2008 found a relation between alcohol and the allergy. Women who drank alcohol every week increased their susceptibility to the allergy by 3%. Alcohol also dehydrates the body, which can make the nasal symptoms worse.

Timothy Grass Allergy Treatment

  • Antihistamines
  • Oral Steroids
  • Injectable Steroids
  • Eyedrops
  • Grass Allergen Immunotherapy treatment (AIT) – this method uses sublingual grass pollen tablets. The tablets are now sold in Europe; however it’s not yet approved by the US FDA.

Read article here.

If you have been diagnosed with allergies to Timothy grass, cats, or dust mites, you might be eligible to donate plasma and earn $1200 or more. Visit www.plasmamedpatients.com for more info or call/text 561-962-5065.