What is the difference between CML (chronic myelogenous leukemia) become AML (acute myelogenous leukemia) and CMMoL (chronic myelomonocytic leukemia)?

 

The three diseases you mention are 3 distinct entities.

CML or chronic myelogenous leukemia is a disease in which patients have too many mature white blood cells. It is considered a myeloproliferative disorder-a condition in which the bone marrow makes too many cells. This disease is diagnosed by the presence of either the Philadelphia Chromosome or the gene made by the Philadelphia chromosome, called bcr-abl. New treatments, which target this abnormal gene, have been developed. It is considered in the list of possible diagnoses, this chromosome is looked for so that appropriate therapy is not missed.

AML or acute myelogenous leukemia is a disease in which patients have too many immature white blood cells in their bone marrow that are not capable of maturing properly. These immature cells act very rapidly and can cause life-threatening problems if the disease is not treated promptly.

CMMoL or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disorder of the bone marrow where the bone marrow is making too many white blood cells called monocytes. The bone marrow appears myeloproliferative but the cells that it makes are not normal mature cells and do not function properly. This disorder is called a myelodysplatic disorder (funny looking bone marrow). Its progression and outcome is variable and can be predicted to some degree by the blood counts and bone marrow findings.

 

https://www.oncolink.org/frequently-asked-questions/cancers/leukemia/general-concerns/what-is-the-difference-between-cml-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia-become-aml-acute-myelogenous-leukemia-and-cmmol-chronic-myelomonocytic-leukemia

 

Scientists reveal how immune system tags Toxoplasma capsule

 

By

Scientists at the Francis Crick Institute have discovered how the host immune system deals with the prolific Toxoplasma parasite as it attempts to camouflage itself by hiding inside a capsule called a vacuole in human cells.

 

For the first time, they’ve revealed how a protein called ubiquitin tags the vacuole hiding Toxoplasma. The cell’s acidification system then destroys it.

Eva Frickel, the research group leader at the Crick who led the work, explains: “The parasite Toxoplasma gondii resides inside a vacuole in the cells of the organism it infects. The vacuole provides a safe haven for the parasite where it can multiply and cause damage to the host. Until now, it was unclear what defence mechanisms human cells deploy to the vacuole to clear and eliminate Toxoplasma. We have found that a human protein called ubiquitin tags the vacuole for destruction via the cell’s acidification system.”

Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite found almost everywhere. It is in soil and unwashed food, but its most important host is the cat. It causes an infection called toxoplasmosis that can cause miscarriage and is especially damaging to people who have a weakened immune system, others never know they’ve been infected.

The team used immunofluorescent microscopy to visualise each step in vacuole destruction. They learnt how a ubiquitin protein tags the vacuole and then attracts other proteins that stick on and allow it to join with an acidic compartment called the lysosome. This then destroys the vacuole and parasite.

“This work is the first demonstration of how ubiquitin tagging leads to vacuole-lysosome fusion in human cells infected with Toxoplasma,” Eva says. “Until now, it was thought the vacuoles were not susceptible. Mouse studies have shown a different route to fusion between the vacuole and lysosome. This raises questions for further studies on how vacuolar-lysosomal fusion in human cells happens and why the human cellular immune response is different from the mouse.”

Eva’s research team explores how react to Toxoplasma and what it is that makes it one of the most successful on the planet. There is no vaccine to protect against Toxoplasma infection or medicine that kills the parasite.

Eva talks about their work and shares images from the progress they are making in research in the Crick’s first public exhibition (above). How do we look? is a collection of scientific images that could be mistaken for works of art though each has been created by a scientist to solve a research problem.

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-scientists-reveal-immune-tags-toxoplasma.html#jCp

Immune disorders impact student lives

By Hannah Lathen

_______________________________

SE student Janna Gentry lives with a mother who has Crohn’s disease and lupus, causing her to have stomach ulcers and inflamed joints.

Online student Laken Reeder has Sjogren’s syndrome, causing extreme pain and difficulties with eating.

TCC students are fighting hidden and misunderstood battles with autoimmune diseases. Even though they affect 1 in 6 people, many do not understand what they are or that they exist.

An autoimmune disease occurs in the body when one’s immune system starts attacking healthy cells. Instead of protecting the body from foreign invaders, the system starts hurting organs.

autoimmune_sjogren's_plasma_research

What is Crohn’s and Ulcerative Colitis?

December 1-7: Crohn’s and Colitis Awareness Week

ulcerative-colitis-crohns-different-tunes

Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis (UC) are both under the umbrella of Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and affect at least 1.6 million Americans and 112 million worldwide. While treatments for these diseases are available, there is not yet a known cure. These diseases are also very tricky because every person’s body reacts differently which means that there is not one treatment, but many different methods and approaches to managing the symptoms of each case. Many people affected by Crohn’s or UC may not even be aware that they have it, as symptoms vary in frequency and severity, and may take several doctor visits to diagnose.

Crohn’s disease was first discovered in 1932 by Burrill Crohn, Leon Ginzberg, and Gordon D. Oppenheimer. At the time, it was only identified as being a “new disease entity”, but was later named by those who discovered it. (CCFA) Reports of this disease date back to the early 1900s. Ulcerative Colitis was first described in 1875 by Wilks and Moxon, two English physicians. Reports of UC date all the way back to before the Civil War, though there are reports of similar symptoms before that when the practice of medicine was less specific.

Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis (UC) are only two of the inflammatory diseases (there are many others) that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Crohn’s disease can affect any of the GI tract, but UC affects only the large intestine and the rectum. When these areas are irritated and inflamed, it inhibits the body’s ability to properly absorb nutrients and water, as well as affecting the elimination of waste, which can then lead to additional health problems. Early symptoms of the disease include abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fatigue, loss of appetite, fever, and blood in your stool.

crohns diagram

One of the reasons why there is yet a cure for these types of IBD is because the diseases themselves are not completely understood. It is known, however, that the genes, immune system, and environmental factors all interact to cause the diseases to present. For people with IBD, the body mistakes the healthy and harmless bacteria in the digestive tract as “harmful invaders” and this causes the body to have an immune response. The immune response is what then causes the inflammation to occur in the gut. The main issue for IBD is that this inflammation then becomes chronic, because the immune response does not stop happening, which can result in ulcers and “thickening of the intestinal wall”. (CCFA)

Types of medical treatment for IBD include medication and surgical. Medications largely stem around anti-inflammatory agents which can help to control the irritation and inflammation. There are also antibiotics which can be used to target infections that occur because of the overgrowth of bacteria and other digestive flora. For people who cannot get control of these diseases with medication, sometimes surgery is needed. Those with Crohn’s are at a greater chance of needing surgery with statistics around 70% of those with Crohn’s. This surgery, however, is only a treatment for the disease and not a cure. As Crohn’s can affect the entirety of the digestive tract, these patients can have a recurrence within 3 years. For UC, around 30% will need surgery which involves the removal of the colon and rectum (the areas affected by the disease). As this is the only area affected by the UC, those patients who have this surgery are cured of their UC.

Cooking-With-Crohns-Recipes-01-1440x810

Interestingly, even though it is the digestive system that is affected dietary treatments for Crohn’s and UC vary widely. Since for Crohn’s, the disease can affect different areas, it is not possible to assign a specific diet to help in the treatment of the whole population of disease. However, there are many recommendations for diet that can be tested per individual as different foods can cause differing bacteria reactions for individuals. For people affected by the disease it can be helpful to start a food diary to track your nutrition and also be aware of what you ingested if something is causing a flair up in your symptoms.

If this is a disease that affects you, do not despair. There are many options for treating and dealing with the symptoms and style of life that comes with having a digestive disorder. The first step to dealing with Crohn’s or UC is to fully accept the diagnosis and move forward with living your definition of a full and healthy life. The biggest deterrent for those diagnosed with these digestive diseases from remission and relief is the attitude and approach to recovery. Those diagnosed who have the greatest success with treating their diseases are those who stay disciplined and focused on their goal of remission.

safe-dental-implants-for-crohns-colitis-patients-300x199

For more information and resources, take a look at the website for the Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation included in our sources. Connect with your community, explore the current research, and learn how to help others and yourself!

 

Sources:

http://www.crohnscolitisfoundation.org
http://www.crohnscolitisfoundation.org/resources/facts-about-inflammatory.html
https://www.healthline.com/health/crohns-disease#diet

Cervical Cancer Prevention: 10 Diet Tips for Susceptible Women

cervical cancer diet

In this section of our Guide to Cervical Cancer Prevention, you will find a collection of diet tips that may help women reduce their risk of getting cervical cancer. However, before getting into the tips, let’s take a quick look at what cervical cancer is:

Cervical cancer (cancer of the cervix) is the second most common cancer in women. In 2009, an estimated 11,000 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer and an estimated 4,000 women will die from this slow- growing cancer. The cervix is the narrow part of the uterus through which babies are born. Cervical cells can go through many types of changes, most of which are harmless and not related to cancer. These changes can be caused by a number of factors, including HPV infection. HPVs (human papillomaviruses) are a group of more than 100 related viruses, many of which can be passed from one person to another through sexual contact. About 15 types of the 100 types of HPV can cause cervical cancer.

In most cases, however, HPV infections go away on their own. But sometimes, especially when the levels of the female hormone estrogen are abnormally high, cells infected with HPV turn into precancerous cells, which can become cancer. Instead of dying, the cervical cancer cells outlive normal cells, invade adjacent tissues, and sometimes spread to other parts of the body via lymph or blood (process called metastasis). So-called pap tests are performed by health care professionals to identify abnormal changes in the cervical cells.

Although a HPV infection is the most important risk factor for developing cervical cancer, it is not the only one. Research suggests that other factors, such as smoking and having given birth to many children, may also increase the risk of cervical cancer. Furthermore, certain dietary factors, described below, may influence the risk of cervical cancer. The paragraphs below describe 10 great diet tips that can help reduce your risk of cervical cancer.

Important notice: The information on this page and elsewhere on this website has not been reviewed by dieticians or medical professionals, and is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical or health advice. Always seek the advice of a professional health care provider.

 

#1: Choose Low Glycemic Foods

Low GI foods form the basis of all anti-cancer diets.

Glycemic Index (GI) is a measure of the ability of carbohydrate-rich foods to raise blood sugar (glucose). Foods that are slowly digested — such as most non-starchy vegetables, legumes and fruit — encourage stable blood glucose levels and have a low Glycemic Index rating. Foods that break down quickly, including most refined carbohydrate-rich foods and potatoes, cause rapid fluctuations in blood glucose levels and are rated high on the Glycemic Index. Diets rich in high-Gi carbohydrates have been associated with an increased risk of several types of cancer. This link is likely to be related to the ability of high-GI foods to stimulate the production of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF), two hormones that have been shown to promote tumor proliferation, progression, and spreading within the body.

 

#2: Avoid Excess Protein

Already at the beginning of the 20th century, John Beard, a Scottish cancer researcher, proposed that the body’s primary defense against proliferating cancer cells is pancreatin. Pancreatin is essentially a mix of protein-digesting enzymes, but these enzymes also have another purpose: the eradication of cancer. Diets that are extremely rich in protein keep the pancreatic emzymes busy digesting protein, which means that little time is left for these enzymes to fight cervical cancer. Experts suggest that the body needs a protein-free period of approximately 12 hours a day in order to combat cancer efficiently.

 

Broccoli

I3C in cruciferous vegetables may help guard against cervical cancer.

#3: Eat Foods That Deliver I3C

Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale and Brussels sprouts have long been touted for their ability to prevent cancer, including cervical cancer. The cancer-fighting properties of cruciferous vegetables largely attributable to indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural compound that occurs in cruciferous vegetables when they are chopped, crushed, or chewed. Indole-3-carbinol has been shown to promote the detoxification of many harmful substances, including carcinogens, and to have strong antioxidant properties. Moreover, indole-3-carbinol appears have anti-estrogenic activitieswhich may provide additional protection against cervical cancer.

 

#4: Count on Curcumin

Curcumin, a phytochemical that gives turmeric its bright yellow color, has been shown to be capable of fighting almost any type of cancer. Researchers at the Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology (ICPO) near New Nelhi in India recently discovered that curcumin can also help fight cervical cancer by protecting the body from the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), the main cause of uterine and cervical cancer. Curcumin appears to arrest the development of cervical cancer by inactivating the HPV that lurks inside cervical cancer cells.

 

#5: Consume Foods That Provide Ellagic Acid

Raspberries

Raspberries are the best dietary source of ellagic acid.

In the battle against cervical cancer, ellagic acid may well be your best weapon. Scientific evidence suggests that ellagic acid can effectively eliminate cervical cancer causing substances by activating certain detoxifying enzymes in the body. Ellagic acid also seems to be able to prevent carcinogens from attaching to cellular DNA. Furthermore, ellagic acid has been shown to stimulate the immune system to destroy cancerous cells and to induce normal self-destruction of human cancer cells. Ellagitannin — which is converted into ellagic acid by the body — is found in a number of red fruits and berries, raspberries being one of the best dietary sources of this extraordinary cervical cancer fighting phytochemical. Also some nuts, such as walnuts and pecans, contain ellagic acid.

 

#6: Avoid Foods That Contain Nitrates

Nitrates are natural substances found in the air, surface water, ground water, soil, and plants. Food manufacturers also use nitrates are also to give processed and cured meat a deep red color. Once consumed, the body can convert nitrates into nitrites, which can turn into nitrosamines. Scientific evidence suggests that nitrosamines can cause cancer in humans. However, certain antioxidants, such as vitamin C and vitamin E, have been shown to effectively inhibit nitrosamine formation. As vegetables usually contain large amounts of antioxidant substances, nitrosamine formation is usually not a concern when you eat vegetables and other plant foods. This is supported by epidemiological studies of human populations which show no link between a high consumption of nitrate-containing vegetables and cancer, but which indicate that diets rich in nitrate-containing processed foods can increase a person’s risk of developing cancer.

 

#7: Avoid Foods That May Be Contaminated with Aflatoxin

Select Fresh Grains, Nuts and Legumes. Some fungi that grow on food can produce carcinogenic substances during processing, storage, and transport. These substances include aflatoxin, a poison produced by a fungus called Aspergillus flavusAflatoxin may cause cervical cancer due to its ability to damage DNA. Peanuts are particularly susceptible to aflatoxin invasion, but also many other foods, including whole grains, legumes, and nuts may be contaminated. Aflatoxin is resistant to cooking and freezing, but you can greatly reduce your risk of exposure by:

only consuming fresh seeds, nuts and grains (or at least you should avoid nuts and grains from last year’s harvest)
looking for signs of proper storage and avoiding foods from countries that have substandard storage requirements
discarding nuts that look or taste suspicious
eating green vegetables that are rich in chlorophyll — chlorophyll has been shown to reduce aflatoxins levels

 

Kiwi_fruit

Vitamin C, abundant in kiwis, has numerous health promoting properties.

#8:  Ensure a Sufficient Intake of Vitamin C and E

Vitamin C and vitamin E have strong antioxidant powers and properties that help boost the immune system. Therefore, a diet rich in vitamin C and vitamin E may help reduce your odds of developing cervical cancer. In addition to their antioxidant and immune sytem boosting activities, vitamin C and vitamin E can inhibit the formation of nitrosamine, a potentially carcinogenic substance. However, the impact of vitamin C on nitrosamine formation might be relevant only if there is no fat in the stomach: A group of researches replicated the chemical conditions of the upper stomach and measured the impact of vitamin C on the production of nitrosamines, both when fat was present in the stomach and when it was absent. In the absence of fat, vitamin C decreased the levels of nitrosamines, but when some fat was added, vitamin C actually boosted the formation of nitrosamines.

 

#9:  Reduce Fat Intake, Especially From Animal Fat

Rich in arachidonic acid, animal fat has been associated with an increased risk of cancer. Arachidonic acid has been shown to enhance cancer growth and to facilitate its spread, and some studies suggest that arachidonic acid may also destroy immune cellsinvolved in the protection against cervical cancer. Omega-3 fatty acids, which are abundant in fatty fish, flaxseed and walnuts, are believed to have a protective effect against cervical cancer. However, even then you might want to limit the total intake of fat to approximately 20% of total caloric intake because all fatty acids stimulate the production of bile which may be converted into apocholic acid, a proven carcinogen, if a lot of fat stagnates in the gut for too long.

 

#10:  Ensure a Sufficient Intake of Zinc

Zinc is a trace mineral vital to the production of more than 200 essential enzymes in the body, one of them being superoxide dismutase (SOD). The role of SOD in the antioxidant system of the body is well documented, indicating that this powerful enzyme may provide protection against cervical cancer by destroying harmful free radicals. In addition, zinc may also reduce the risk of cervical cancer by helping the immune system to eliminate abnormal or worn out cells before they multiply themselves and become potentially cancerous.

 

 



What is Keystone virus? Zika’s Cousin has now infected the first human!!

Zika Virus Has a New Competitor

PMR-KeystoneZika-v1 (1)

Another mosquito-borne virus, the Keystone virus, might pose a risk to people, specifically those in Florida.

A confirmed human case of Keystone was recently reported in the medical journal Clinical Infectious Diseases. Research author J. Glenn Morris suggested Keystone cases could be “fairly common in North Florida,” but he said this is the first confirmed case, possibly because patients are rarely tested for the virus.

Here’s what you should know about the Keystone virus:

When was it found?

The virus was first discovered in the Tampa Bay-area in 1964. Since then, animal cases (squirrels, raccoons and deer) have been found from Texas to the Chesapeake Bay.

How do you catch it?

The virus is transmitted by mosquito bites, usually bites from aedes atlanticus.

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms might include a rash, mild fever and encephalitis, brain inflammation.

How many people have it?

University of Florida researchers recently said a 16-year-old boy was the first human case of the Keystone virus. The teen did not suffer from brain swelling, but did have a fever and rash. The case was identified because doctors thought the teen might be suffering from the Zika virus during a known outbreak. The laboratory tests they collected from him for Zika testing led them to the Keystone discovery. The Florida Department of Health told USA TODAY there was another recorded case of the virus in a young child from Sarasota in 1964.

Is it related to Zika?

The aedes atlanticus mosquito, a cousin to the Zika-spreading aedes aegypti mosquito, is most well-known for carrying the Keystone virus. Aedes infirmatus mosquitos as well as other aedes and culex species have also known to carry the virus, the Florida Department of Health said.

Is there a cure?

There’s no specific treatment plan for the virus in humans.

How can we prevent it?

The only known way to prevent the virus is to avoid mosquito bites. The Environmental Protection Agency recommends using insect repellent, wearing long-sleeve shirts and pants, staying inside air-conditioned areas and using screens on windows and doors to prevent bites. In addition to these tips, the Florida Department of Health also suggests draining standing water, such as rainwater collected in garbage cans or pool covers.

Back in April, before the height of mosquito season, Bill Gates devoted a whole week of his blog, appropriately named ‘Mosquito week’, warning and educating people on the dangers of mosquitos.  This a great read to educate yourself and to learn about how a tiny African kingdom named Swaziland has developed a well-coordinated malaria program—including a robust surveillance and control system—that has helped reduce the number of cases in the country by more than 90 percent since 2002. Now, Swaziland aims to eliminate malaria entirely within its borders by 2020. (please see the gates notes link below to learn more)

What will the case be for the U.S.A. in 2020 and what will it look like since new cases are being discovered each year, bringing the number of mosquito species to over 3,000 in the world, of which 176 of them can be found in the United States.

PMR-MosquitoGraphic-v1

references;

Kyle Berard of Plasma MedResearch located in Boca Raton, FL

USA TODAY NETWORK Ashley May, USA TODAY Published June 25, 2018

https://www.gatesnotes.com/Health/Mosquito-Week-2018

https://www.gatesnotes.com/Health/Buzz-Kill